Monday, May 3, 2010


"Bread Science 101." The Accidental Scientist: Science of Cooking. Exploratorium, n.d. Web. 3 May 2010. <>.

Czernohorsky, J. H., and Hooker, R. "The Chemistry of Baking." New Zealand Institute of Chemistry. NZIC, 2008. Web. 3 May 2010. <>.

Katiz, David. “Peanut and Nut Butter.” Cooking with Chemistry. David A. Katz, 1997. Web. 3 May 2010. <>.

Katz, David. "Lollipops." Cooking with Chemistry. David A. Katz, 1997. Web. 3 May 2010. <>.

"Non GMO Soya Lecithin." Gujarat Ambuja Exports Limited. Gujarat Ambuja Exports Limited, 2006. Web. 3 May 2010. <>.

Rundles, Jennifer. "Mixtures and Solutions." Chemistry Notes. SMS. Raleigh, NC. 2010. Lecture.

"Science of Sugar." The Accidental Scientist: Science of Cooking. Exploratorium. Web. 3 May 2010. <>.

Baking in Brownies

Brownies, the fundamental of comfort food, is yet another example of chemistry in cooking. When baking brownies, especially from scratch, it is vital to make perfect proportions because too much of one ingredient can leave the product inedible. For instance, adding too much oil or forgetting eggs can negatively affect the brownies. One common ingredient found in brownies is baking powder. Baking powder can be used for various things in cooking including leavening products and neutralizing recipes. The baking powder used in brownies is used to leaven the mixture when it is cooking (Bread Science 101). The baking powder leavens the mixture by releasing CO2 when reacting with water the heat from the oven. This is seen in the following equation:
NaHCO3 + H+ → Na+ + H2O + CO2 (Czernohorsky, J. H., and Hooker, R.)

When baking the rate of which the CO2 is released and the amount that is release are very important factors. By properly proportioning the heat of the oven and the amount of ingredients the desired affects can be achieved. By baking brownies, I will demonstrate how the baking powder in the brownie mix helps to rise the chocolate treat, creating a specific texture.

Side note: Brownie Mix also contains Lecithin in order to not stick to the baking pan, yet another application of different chemicals in chemistry.

Lollipops and Sugar Reaction

In chemistry, much like in cooking, not only do the ingredients make a huge difference in the final solution but the process in which they are combined can be exponentially affective. The reaction between sugar and water in the creation of lollipops in combination with certain temperatures creates sugar syrup used in making candy. The water, in addition, keeps the substance from charring when it is heated to create the final product. An important factor to be aware of when manipulating candy is the crystallization of the sugar because it can greatly change the final product (Katz Lollipops). Water and heat play an important role in controlling the amount of crystallization in the creation of candy. When sugar is dissolved in water when the solution can no longer dissolve anymore sugar it is considered saturated. In order to dissolve the appropriate proportions of sugar for the ingredients in a recipe heat is added to raise the saturation point, creating a supersaturated product. Other outside influences such as corn syrup are used to restrain the crystallization of the sugar. By following the instruction at: I will experiment the rate that sugar dissolves in heat, water and in reaction with corn syrup when making lollipops.
Lecithin in peanut butter gives the substance the non sticky texture found in peanut butter. It’s also seen in non stick cooking spray and applied in various other shelf products to help with shelf life and helping to keep consistent texture and taste. Lecithin is chemically removed from soya bean and mixture with complex levels of acetone insoluble phosphatides and trigclycerides. Lecithin is a common example of chemistry in cooking and is found in many different household foods, as well as animal feed (Gujarat Ambuja). In the following project I will attempt to create peanut butter without Lecithin according the recipe found on the following link:
The process described in the preceding link is followed exactly except for the use of lecithin.

Monday, April 12, 2010


With in the next two weeks, three recipes will be performed. Each recipe will show a different area of chemistry with in cooking.
I will be creating Lollipops, Peanut Butter and Brownies. These recipes can mostly be found at with the exception of brownies, which will be box brownies. More information to come.

Monday, March 29, 2010


Three Recipes, Cooking with Chemistry in its simplest